The Principle of Effectiveness of Eu Law from the Perspective of the Obligations of National Courts
Keywords:The principle of effectiveness, the principle of effective judicial protection, the question referred for a preliminary ruling, the direct effect of EU law, the principle of primacy
The principle of effectiveness of EU law, despite the lack of an explicit basis in EU primary law, is the source of principles regulating the nature of EU law and the manner of its application. It particularly affects the performance of duties by domestic courts,
which, according to the wording of Art. 19 para. 1 item 2 TEU, is one of the elements of the EU judicial system. It is based on a systemic dualism that includes the CJEU and national courts. When analyzing the implementation of the principle of effectiveness,
it should be noted that it covers two areas. The first is of general nature and concerns the obligation to ensure the effectiveness of EU law, and the second – the subjective one – is related to the obligation to ensure the effectiveness of EU law in a specific case by
granting adequate protection to the rights of an individual that derive from EU law. In this aspect, the courts are of key importance, as they implement it through the systemic principle of effective judicial protection. It is a guide that indicates how to proceed
and what principles should be followed in the process of application of EU law. This process consists of several stages, the implementation of which is subordinated to one goal – to guarantee effective judicial protection and thus the effectiveness of EU law. First, the court examines whether a given claim is based on a norm that has a direct effect, which will determine the next stage of action. Then, by referring to the principle of direct effect, it subsumes and, if necessary, applies the principle of primacy of EU law
or a pro-EU interpretation. The last element that indirectly implements the principle of effectiveness of EU law is the referral for a preliminary ruling.
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